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Level of Detail in BIM and why does it matter?

What is the Level of Detail (LOD)?

The Level of Development (LOD) specification enables experts to explain how an element’s shape and accompanying information have evolved. LOD specs were created to standardize the LOD framework’s use and make it a practical and collaborative communication tool.

The construction sector is working via Building Information Modeling (BIM) in this Digital Age since the detail level can range from a broad geometric representation to constructing an accurate as-built model. To complete a project successfully, everyone must speak the same language. Because the difference in comprehension will cause issues. It is critical to have a better method of conveying needs amongst Project Owners, Designers, Contractors, and so on, and that method is known as the Level of Detail (LOD). LOD is a method for disciplines to convey their needs to one another.

The Level of Detail (LOD) describes the quantity and type of building information required in a BIM Model.

LOD 100

The model element is graphically represented with generic forms and symbols. The project’s spaces are modeled as generic objects with approximate sizes, shapes, and locations. This level will help you grasp the design and spatial requirements. The model element is a block depicting the project. It does not have a standard shape or size.

LOD 200

Model elements are graphically represented as a generic system, object, or assembly within the model at this level, with approximate specifications, numbers, size, shape, placement, and orientation. LOD 200 element information must be regarded as inaccurate. Non-graphic information can also be supplied to the model element. However, it lacks precise detail but perfectly represents the geometry. It provides an approximate floor design, supporting framing components, and structural grids.

LOD 300

LOD 300 is a level in which the model has exact quantity, size, position, orientation information, detailing, fabrication, assembly, and installation information. The information contained in LOD 300 models can be utilized during the project’s construction phase.

All structural elements with the same overall size, geometry, placements, and orientations. It should include, but not be limited to, the specification of material qualities and finishes. Sloping surfaces or floor depressions, primary entrances such as elevators or shafts, the top and size of the pier, and so on should all be modeled.

LOD 350

LOD 350 elements include the same data as LOD 300 features but also interfaces, supports, or linkages to other building components. “ODL 350 models would include modeling places modeling impair cooperation with other systems.” It comprises any permanent shaping or shoring components and all penetrations to be modeled to rough opening dimensions. Actual construction element size and shape are modeled, as well as spacing, location/connections of plumbing components and equipment, pipe slope, valves, fittings, and insulation. All hangers, supports, vibration, anchors, and seismic control were used in the design.

LOD 400

The Model Element is visually displayed within the Model as a specific system, object, or assembly that is accurate in terms of size, shape, location, quantity, and orientation, as well as detailing, fabrication, assembly, and installation information. Non-graphic data can also be attached to a Model Element.

The LOD is 400 when complete manufacturing and assembly information can be driven directly from the model. In other words, the data and information included in LOD 400 objects can be directly sent to suppliers for them to manufacture the architectural components represented. The following items should be modeled at LOD400. Pipework and process piping with a diameter of 12 inches or greater diameter will be insulated as needed. Where coordination with the operations of other specialties is essential, hangers must be modeled.

Every piece of equipment, including its overall height, width, depth, and connection points. Access zones for items such as equipment fixtures, valves, and cleanouts that require access.

LOD 500 ( AS BUILT)

This model level will include all the geometry and information required to support building operations and maintenance throughout its lifecycle. They’ve been finished and installed, their placement has been field-verified, and they limit the information clients can access when the construction is complete. These include, among other things, a model number, a production date, and a purchase date.

System class, equipment name, BIM model of a building, look description (word/picture), and so on.

Dimensions, material, elevation, accurate model detail (word/picture), and so on are all examples of geometric information.

Equipment resume, history records, checklist, staff and schedule record book, and so on are all part of the maintenance record.

Conclusion

Field tools such as the Trimble Robotic Total Station can be used around LOD 300 when certain assemblies are recognized in the model. This includes walls, mechanical and electrical equipment, ducts, conduits, and cable trays. LOD levels for electrical and mechanical estimation activities may differ from those required for other phases of the BIM process.

LOD establishes a consistent definition of completion and removes the possibility of project completion disputes. Teams from many disciplines can communicate more efficiently and clearly with one another while using LOD. LOD improves design clarity by utilizing modern techniques and technologies. The Level of Development (LOD) specification is a reference for AEC practitioners to articulate the content and reliability of Building Information Models with high clarity (BIMs)

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UniquesCadd
Architecture & Building

These Innovative BIM trends will shape the construction industry in 2023.

The engineering and construction (E&C) business got off to a solid start in 2022, but it was greeted with numerous significant headwinds, including growing costs and labor shortages.

And gone are the times when The construction industry used to rely on pen and paper for construction drafting. This was eventually replaced by BIM (Building Information Modelling). Every large or small build currently employs BIM to render Architectural Drawing concepts in a digital and data-rich format.

But How can companies flourish in a competitive market while navigating ongoing volatility?

What does the future hold for the construction sector? Will BIM’s reliance continue, and if so, how will BIM adapt to the challenges and demands of the construction and design industries? Let us explore.

Prefabrication and modular designs

Prefabrication is the first step in modular assembly, which begins with the design and fabrication of building elements off-site in a factory or workshop.

BIM techniques are at the heart of many advances in modular assembly. Prefabrication begins with the creation of building elements off-site in a factory or workshop.

While the construction industry has struggled recently, prefabrication and modular building have grown in popularity to address safety and productivity concerns. Prefabrication is the off-site fabrication of building components customized to the project’s requirements. Modular construction, on the other hand, involves standardized construction modules such as a factory-fitted toilet or a dorm room.

BIM model sharing on the Cloud

Cloud-BIM or BIM model sharing on the Cloud is the new advancement in BIM technology to fight against its standalone nature. Putting BIM on the Cloud lets anyone in any location at any time access project information. B. Autodesk released BIM 360, its construction management software that allows architects, engineers, and project stakeholders to collaborate in a centralized online workspace. Cloud BIM improves communication and collaboration amongst numerous project team members by giving them a platform for real-time communication.

3D Printing

In the construction industry, 3D printers are used to create a 3D digital model or prototype of construction components. Because 3D-printed buildings utilize fewer materials, they are less expensive than traditional production. 3D printing may one day help prefabrication and modular structure. Many construction standard bodies and standards are opposed to the use of this technology because it is not considered a construction approach.

Digital Twin

A digital representation model developed to exactly replicate a natural physical system or object is a digital twins algorithm for construction purposes. While three-dimensional information has been employed in the construction industry for some time, fulfilling DTs may be the most critical factor in conducting more economical projects.

Buildings can be fully integrated into their surroundings thanks to digital twins. This virtual tool could benefit development projects requiring high-site traffic, such as stadiums or shopping malls. Many construction organizations are expected to have implemented some form of DTs by 2023 to reduce costs and avoid problems before they occur.

Internet of Things (IoT)

The Internet of Things is a tool that embeds a sensor in an object or machine component to monitor its operating state. IoT devises aid in real-time data retrieval, and their integration with BIM opens up a vast network of applications for improving operational and construction efficiencies.

With its updated data flow and usages of cloud technologies like ABB Switch Range Configurator and Rexel Wholesale Connector, IoT sensor networks and BIM model integration speed the designing process. IoT technology also impacts and facilitates facilities management, prefabrication, logistics, and health and safety management.

Augmented reality (AR) & Virtual reality (VR)

Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are popular in the construction sector. AR uses mobile and 3D models to place the proposed 3D model or design in real-world surroundings. VR creates a virtual representation of the physical world or real-world environment. These slashing technologies help create and display a 3D Revit model in building and architecture floor Plan.

The correct presentation of BIM data aids in space planning, design analysis for clash detection between MEP sections or any other aspect, fluid communication between the design and construction teams to reduce frequent change orders, and even the prefabrication of building components.

Laser Scanning

In construction, 3D laser scanners are commonly used for various rehabilitation, retrofit, or conversion projects. Scan to BIM gathers scanned data from a real-world location in a point cloud using laser scanners and turns it into a 3D model.

3D laser scanning is employed in various sectors, including archaeology, civil engineering, and the (game) business. The applications for 3D laser scanning are nearly limitless. Laser scanning is ideal for three-dimensional tunnels, bridges, facade architecture measurements, archaeological documentation, piping modeling, volume measurements, and other applications.

Green Buildings

Energy modeling or energy analysis is a virtual simulation of a building based on numerous criteria such as energy consumption, interior environmental quality, utility bills, annual CO2 emissions, and cost projection for electrical equipment used for air conditioning, hot water, lighting, and so on. It also involves examining and comparing various green energy sources such as solar panels, wind turbines, photovoltaics, and other high-efficiency appliances. Post-load design energy modeling determines the amount of cooling or heating energy required by the system and structure.

Conclusion

The construction market is in good shape for the balance this year and next. We already see an increase in automation through digital technologies such as drones, 3D printing, and nanotechnology. Innovative technology is also becoming a need rather than a luxury for businesses and homeowners. These technologies will see rapid growth in conjunction with the Internet of Things, notably in intelligent kitchens and bathrooms.

Further, with the help of AI the BIM in construction, The AEC market is estimated to increase at a CAGR of 15.20% during the forecast period of 2023-2028, aided by the incorporation of artificial intelligence (AI) in BIM software. By 2027, the market will be worth approximately USD 7.6 billion

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UniquesCadd
Architecture & Building, BIM

How has Scan to BIM Powered by AI Revolutionized Architecture?

According to sources, 31% of businesses intend to adopt artificial intelligence in some capacity during the following year. In architecture, AI can significantly improve the problem-solving skills of CAD software. With AI integration and the lag of 2D or 3D CAD software, the decision-making process might be considerably faster than you think.

Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to make architecture more simple, efficient, and safe. Here are seven ways AI is transforming the architectural field. Some designers are concerned about AI replacing human employees, which is understandable but needs more accurate.

Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to make architecture more simple, efficient, and safe. Here are seven ways AI is transforming the architectural field. Building Information Modeling (BIM) can significantly reduce the time it takes to plan and build a construction using AI. Augmented reality has taken over the video game business and is now making inroads into construction and design. Historically, the building business has been one of the least technologically advanced.

However, there is significant potential for integrating AI into construction, which might lower building costs by up to 20%. Firms can replicate everything from aesthetics to noises, and input may be promptly incorporated into the design. Computers can perform a job analysis.

Now let’s circle back to our main topic, AI-powered scan to BIM.

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a technique that assists in creating multi-dimensional models of infrastructure projects in a virtual simulation before their execution on the ground. It has evolved into a synergistic system that delivers 3-D models of buildings to architects and stakeholders while also assisting them in assessing and analyzing the impact of a minor adjustment on the overall project.

Scan-to-BIM is a word that is frequently heard in the BIM business these days. There is little doubt that Scan-to-BIM has made its way through and is now one of the most requested and used technologies among AEC members. Scan-to-BIM has significantly changed the AEC sector by accelerating the digital modeling (BIM) process and providing As-built BIM Models for cost-effective refit, refurbishment, expansion, and renovation projects, reducing project risks.

The typical workflow for Scan-to-BIM involves scanning the building, taking the registered point cloud data, and turning them (modeling) into deliverable – BIM models, incorporating required standards. All of these activities take time and necessitate human intervention.

Hence Artificial intelligence is vital in BIM since it helps identify potential difficulties in the future. Machine Learning is an AI technology that allows the system to learn from itself and execute based on these new discoveries. Because infrastructure development projects are vast, and mistakes can cost a corporation a lot, AI can assist in bringing in a long-term perspective.

How does SCAN TO BIM powered by AI work?

Applying artificial intelligence in BIM helps lessen the risks associated with human mistakes. Because infrastructure projects are risky in and of themselves, it helps to avoid significant damage to life and property. The incorporation of AI in BIM has only recently begun, and the combination of these two formidable technologies is likely to develop in the future. It has aided in developing productivity in construction projects and the cohesion and integration of labor across teams on an infrastructure project.

A machine learning model handles these features by encrypting each element’s attributes, such as surface area, volume, orientation, etc. To elaborate, AI enables the user to enter design standards and codes in the form of rules, allowing the machine learning engine to generate a viable deliverable. This can make BIM-compliant documents more accessible and interpretable.

In terms of Scan-to-BIM, these technologies can be used to develop floor plan designs, topography, and other jobs that would otherwise be repetitious and time-consuming. Many BIM software companies have begun to use Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to increase the efficiency and potential of their software. ScanX, deep fusion, Aurivus, Avvir, and BIMERR are a few examples.

What are the benefits of Scan-to-BIM powered by AI/ML?

Risk mitigation is critical in an accident-prone business like construction. Artificial intelligence finds high-risk zones and notifies individuals. This aids in developing contingency plans and evacuation tactics and identifying future threats such as heights and falling hazards. When fed a set of “rules,” it can generate accurate models and floor plans.

Integrating these plans and all systems via Artificial Intelligence allows essential modifications across the spectrum to be made without the burden of disseminating information. For example, if the architect decides to reduce the height of the building by 1 centimeter, the entire design, including machinery, resources, and teams, will be streamlined correspondingly.

Robotics, deep learning, mobile scanning, drones, and AR/VR are anticipated to influence the future of construction by combining with and improving Scan-to-BIM operations. Instead of eliminating or replacing the human worker, these technologies assist people in performing their responsibilities more efficiently. These technologies take over laborious and time-consuming tasks, allowing the workers to focus on the tasks that require their full attention.

Rework and the costs associated with it can be avoided. The ability to update and enhance, assisting in consistently delivering efficient, tailored, and practical solutions. Predictive analytics aids in the identification and elimination of hazards.

Conclusion

The combination of Scan-to-BIM and AI/ML is notable, and it is expected to see a wide range of industrial applications in the coming days. Overall, this improves project productivity, saves time and money, and reduces risks and accidents in infrastructure development. True success comes from forging ahead and embracing these technologies to achieve fruitful results.

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Avinash Rajput
Latest posts by Avinash Rajput (see all)
    Architecture & Building

    Disaster Resilience architecture: How the AEC sector is dealing with environmental Risks

    “We cannot stop natural disasters, but we can prepare ourselves to fight them.”

    The incidence of climate-related disasters has tripled in the previous 30 years and is still increasing at an alarming rate. And the impact of calamities in today’s world puts far more at risk. The enormous population increase and industrial boom have resulted in the building of infrastructure that, if struck by a disaster, would magnify the collateral damage by a factor of ten. These reasons push disaster-resilient architecture to the forefront of future building designs.

    According to WHO, natural disasters include Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Volcanic eruptions, landslides, Hurricanes, Floods Wildfires, Heatwaves, and Droughts. And each has a unique but equally disastrous impact on lives and infrastructure.

    Disaster-resilient architecture strives to construct buildings and structures that can withstand natural and artificial disasters and recover quickly. The resilient design anticipates future issues through better site planning and more robust building processes.

    What Resilient Architecture Design Measures are there for the AEC industry?

    UNESCO has proposed a holistic approach to building disaster-resistant structures appropriate for the local environment and architecture. It considers social, cultural, economic, environmental, and technical factors.

    Disaster-resilient architecture is built to survive the most prevalent disasters in a given area. Such architecture mitigates the negative consequences of natural disasters and allows for faster risk management.

    Disaster-resistant construction materials can be employed in both new and existing structures.
    Flood-resistant building materials include concrete, glazed bricks, closed cells, foam insulation steel hardware, and marine-grade plywood glues. Architectural stand Structures in seismic areas can be protected with paper tubes, biomaterials, and shape memory alloys. They provide flexibility to buildings and structures and keep them sturdy during earthquakes.

    It is impossible to create architecture that is resistant to natural disasters. However, in this new environment, projects that are strategically intended to mitigate the effects of natural disasters. Building information modeling (BIM) is one invention that could be crucial in developing a world that is resilient to natural disasters. It helps prepare structures for disasters and tragedies and limits the damage a crisis can inflict.

    Want to know how BIM can support disaster-resilient architecture? Then keep reading this blog till the end.

    BIM can help retrofit existing structures to make them more disaster-resistant. Building information modeling (BIM) can improve the building environment’s resilience. Construction project management, environmental stability, and other industries will rely heavily on BIM methods and technologies.

    It gives all parties involved real-time, detailed information such as floor plans and the structural state of the structure. Pinnacle InfoTech is a market leader in providing AEC firms with cutting-edge end-to-end BIM solutions.

    BIM and AI together to develop resilient building models

    Building information modeling (BIM) can improve the built environment’s resilience. Construction project management, environmental stability, and other industries will rely heavily on BIM methods and technologies.

    It gives all parties involved real-time, detailed information such as floor plans and the structural state of the structure.

    Simulation tools can help designers predict how the building will react in a natural disaster when used in collaboration with BIM models. BIM architects and engineers can simulate the spread of a fire, calculate earthquake damage, and foresee how flooding may effect a project thanks to current technology.

    BIM for Better Preparedness

    Usually the rescue team has to use physical reference materials like blueprints or two-dimensional CAD designs to gain access to a facility.

    These representations aren’t very helpful in an emergency since the information they provide is typically out-of-date and doesn’t provide the level of detail that emergency personnel need.

    For such team who need precise, thorough, and current information on the structure and contents of a building, BIM turns out to be a great support. Since it record three-dimensional internal geometry and evacuation details of a building it can incredibly help the rescue team.

    Because BIM models can be highly detailed, they may also incorporate a range of building data relevant to disaster response teams, such as information.

    BIM for Disaster Management and Response

    Building Information Management (BIM) software can be a valuable resource for building owners looking to develop more effective disaster response plans or even automated building systems. BIM Technologies can help owners plan to rescue and evacuation routes for fires and other crises more successfully. They can also assist building owners and disaster response teams in managing an active evacuation more successfully.

    A system can even track evacuees as they walk through the building using a combination of BIM model data and intelligent building technology, potentially guiding them to nearby exits or assisting in coordinating their movement based on the location of rescue teams.

    Using BIM to Remodel Informal Housing

    Unfortunately, around the world, more than a billion people reside in squalid, substandard dwellings. Plumbing, electricity, and water may be in insufficient supply in informal houses. Residents of everyday homes are particularly susceptible to natural disasters due to poor construction and material choices.

    By redesigning the existing informal housing, developers can use BIM to partially automate the process of building disaster-resilient structures. These upgrades support the existing substandard housing’s structural stability. By renovating pre-existing buildings rather than building brand-new ones, governments can cut the expense of providing adequate, disaster-resistant housing for their citizens while minimizing the danger of transferring existing residents.

    Conclusion

    BIM could be a valuable tool for construction firms and disaster responders looking to reduce the effect of future disasters. It could also refit existing structures with BIM to prepare them for disasters better. And it’s a fact that architecture can ensure that a design will be disaster-proof in all circumstances. However, proper building architecture can surely save lives.

    UniquesCadd
    Architecture & Building, BIM

    Dynamo: How does it improve BIM workflow efficiency?

    The AEC sector is embracing artificial intelligence and machine learning to improve project processes and productivity. The industry is moving away from traditional tools to adapt and use new technologies and techniques for a brighter tomorrow. Computational tools such as Dynamo have entered the sector to improve the project design process and efficiency.

    What is Dynamo?

    Dynamo modeling is a visual programming tool that employs visual expressions, spatially oriented visuals, and text as secondary notations. Even though applications are written in text, this programming language allows users to interact with graphical elements known as “nodes.” Each node represents a different API function and has an input and an output.

    Let’s look at the fundamental challenges faced during the BIM process before we go into the benefits of adding Dynamo to the BIM workflow.

    1. Repetitive and time-consuming tasks cause project delays
    2. Human errors causing rework
    3. Use of trained labor for quality control of reoccurring structural flaws
      Ambiguities in the amount of intricacy and an increase in RFIs

    How Does Dynamo Integration Improve BIM Workflow Efficiency?

    Incorporating Dynamo into the BIM workflow helps achieve various repetitive yet crucial tasks through generative design automation.

    Here is the 6-step process.

    • With dynamo, it is possible to create a single level for a complex building. Designers can accomplish this with a simple tool set and a few button clicks. All that is necessary for Dynamo is to add new levels above the specified class to identify the distance between groups and add the total number of levels.
    • Through a special visual programming feature, Dynamo makes it possible to rotate columns. Running this script helps with the simultaneous processing of all identical columns.
    • The report can be exported into Excel with headers, and the graph picture includes all elements of a given category, providing for parameter reporting.
    • Users can join many columns together using the Dynamo graph in Revit by using criteria like splice offsets, elevations, column levels, and other Revit capabilities. This graph can be used by QA/QC teams to confirm the span-to-depth proportion for structural design.
    • Even without using construction schedules, large data values can be added, and mechanical parts can be found. You can select items from the pipe category to alter the current offset height to a new one. Items from the Space or Room category can be boundary boxed and evaluated in the appropriate variety.
    • Accessing a user-defined Excel file and setting a collection of views allows you to build new sheets. Using automated scripts, text can be transformed from lower to upper case or vice versa.

    Now the benefits of incorporating Dynamo into BIM.

    Revit is a fantastic tool for designers and engineers to use to generate accurate and information-rich BIM models, but its integration with Dynamo expands its capabilities. Efficiency improvements in construction are made possible through analysis-based parametric modeling, reduced workflows, and Dynamo’s generative design capabilities. Dynamo explores numerous design possibilities without having to develop them manually. It automates BIM, which saves time, decreases human error, and provides quality control tools.

    Make repetitive tasks automated

    By automating these procedures with Dynamo, you may eliminate these time-consuming tasks and better use your time. You can automate these tasks by developing tools in Dynamo for each one. These tools can be accessed later in Revit by using Dynamo Player.

    Its user interface simplifies several tedious and time-consuming operations in Autodesk Revit.

    Quick accessibility of data

    Dynamo makes it easier to combine and obtain data from various parameters.

    This data can also be fed back into the model. This establishes Dynamo as an excellent tool for data-specific tasks.

    Further, Dynamo allows you to construct assessment tools based on numerous parameters, such as lighting standards, ventilation, temperature, energy usage, and others, to evaluate the project’s performance. Dynamo can be used to mimic the performance of a building during its design phase to estimate its performance in real-world situations. Continuous project performance measurement at the design stage aids in timely troubleshooting and saves time and money.

    Multiple design options

    Dynamo supports designers and engineers in creating restroom designs and layouts, glazing patterns on curtain walls, furniture, mechanical rooms, etc. When given the correct data, the Dynamo can generate various design options. It provides multiple possibilities by encoding rules in a computational system. By automating such boring operations with Dynamo, designers may devote more time to creating the vital components of a building.

    Test Performance

    Before construction can begin, it is critical to test the design’s performance. Making adjustments throughout the design phase can help you save money.

    Dynamo allows processes or workflows to be encoded using actual computational workflows rather than depending on designers’ intuitions and imaginations. Each procedure is transformed into a sequence of step-by-step instructions using dynamic-based computing for more straightforward editing and assessment.

    Problems are easier to solve when they are broken down into steps and inputs, and outcomes are considered.

    Conclusion

    Architectural and engineering businesses are increasingly using Revit Dynamo to speed up operations and processes. Integrating Dynamo with BIM speeds up repetitive project processes and increases coordination and communication. In addition, Dynamo validates designs by automating analysis and developing efficient techniques in less time than other applications.

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    Him Darji
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